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This is a guide to magnesium supplements and their benefits.

Magnesium Supplements: Benefits, Side Effects, and Dosage

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in many biological processes, including energy production, DNA synthesis, and muscle and nerve function. It is involved in over 300 metabolic reactions in the body and is necessary for maintaining good health. Magnesium is found in various foods, including green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains.

Magnesium is also available in supplement form, including tablets, capsules, and powders. Some people take magnesium supplements to help meet their daily requirements or address specific health concerns, such as muscle cramps, migraines, and constipation.

However, talking to your doctor before starting a magnesium supplement is important, as too much magnesium can lead to side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal cramping. Additionally, certain medical conditions, such as kidney disease, can impact the body’s ability to metabolize magnesium properly, so it is important to monitor your magnesium intake.

Magnesium Benefits

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in overall health. It is involved in over 300 metabolic reactions in the body and has many important functions, including:

  • Muscle and nerve function: Magnesium is necessary to properly function muscles and nerves. It helps to regulate muscle contractions and is involved in transmitting nerve impulses.
  • Energy production: Magnesium plays a role in the production of energy in the body, helping to convert food into usable energy.
  • Bone health: Magnesium is necessary to form and maintain healthy bones. It helps to regulate calcium levels and is involved in the production of osteoblasts, the cells that build new bone.
  • Heart health: Magnesium helps to regulate heart rhythm and blood pressure and may reduce the risk of heart disease and stroke.
  • Immune system support: Magnesium helps to boost the immune system by stimulating the production of white blood cells and other immune cells.
  • Mental health: Magnesium may have a calming effect on the nervous system, helping to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression.
  • Sleep: Magnesium may help to regulate the body’s circadian rhythm and promote deeper, more restful sleep.

In addition to its many health benefits, magnesium also helps regulate other body minerals, such as calcium and potassium. A diet that includes magnesium-rich foods, such as green leafy vegetables, nuts, and whole grains, can help to meet your daily requirement and support overall health. It is essential to talk to your doctor to determine the right amount of magnesium for you and to discuss any questions or concerns you may have.

Magnesium and Hormones

Magnesium plays a role in the regulation of hormones in the body, including:

  • Stress hormones: Magnesium helps to regulate the production and metabolism of stress hormones, such as cortisol, which can impact energy levels, immune function, and overall health.
  • Thyroid hormones: Magnesium is involved in the production and metabolism of thyroid hormones, which play a key role in regulating metabolism and energy levels.
  • Insulin: Magnesium helps to regulate insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism and may improve insulin resistance in people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Sex hormones: Magnesium helps to regulate the production and balance of sex hormones, such as estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone, which play a role in reproductive and sexual health.
  • Adrenal hormones: Magnesium helps to regulate the production and metabolism of adrenal hormones, which are involved in the body’s response to stress.
  • By supporting hormone regulation, magnesium can help to maintain overall health and prevent the development of various health problems, such as stress-related disorders, thyroid problems, diabetes, and reproductive and sexual health issues. A diet that includes magnesium-rich foods, such as green leafy vegetables, nuts, and whole grains, and regular exercise can help to meet your daily requirement and support overall hormone health.

Magnesium and Estrogen

Magnesium plays a role in the regulation of estrogen levels in the body. Estrogen is a key hormone in reproductive and sexual health, and its balance is important for overall health. Magnesium helps to regulate estrogen levels in several ways, including:

  • Metabolism: Magnesium helps to metabolize estrogen, breaking down and removing excess hormones from the body.
  • Synthesis: Magnesium is involved in the synthesis of estrogen in the body, helping to regulate its production and balance.
  • Hormone transport: Magnesium helps to transport estrogen to the cells that need it, ensuring that it reaches its target sites and exerts its effects.
  • Having adequate magnesium levels can help to maintain a healthy balance of estrogen in the body, reducing the risk of estrogen-related health problems, such as hormonal imbalances, menstrual irregularities, and certain types of cancers. On the other hand, magnesium deficiency can contribute to estrogen imbalances, negatively impacting reproductive and sexual health.

Magnesium and Testosterone

Magnesium plays a role in the regulation of testosterone levels in the body. Testosterone is a key male sex hormone involved in sexual and reproductive health, muscle mass, bone density, and overall health. Magnesium helps to regulate testosterone levels in several ways, including:

  • Synthesis: Magnesium is involved in testosterone synthesis in the testes, helping regulate its production and balance.
  • Hormone transport: Magnesium helps to transport testosterone to the cells that need it, ensuring that it reaches its target sites and exerts its effects.
  • Enzyme activity: Magnesium helps to activate enzymes involved in testosterone metabolism, ensuring that testosterone is metabolized and removed from the body in a timely and efficient manner.
  • Having adequate magnesium levels can help to maintain healthy testosterone levels, reducing the risk of testosterone-related health problems, such as sexual and reproductive health issues, and age-related declines in testosterone levels.

Magnesium and Adrenal Health

Magnesium plays a role in the regulation of adrenal health and function. The adrenal glands produce and regulate hormones involved in the body’s response to stress, including adrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone. Magnesium helps to regulate adrenal function in several ways, including:

  • Stress response: Magnesium helps to regulate the body’s stress response by reducing the production of cortisol, a stress hormone, and by helping to lower stress-related symptoms, such as anxiety and nervousness.
  • Hormone production: Magnesium is involved in producing and regulating adrenal hormones, ensuring that they are produced and metabolized in a healthy and balanced manner.
  • Enzyme activity: Magnesium helps to activate enzymes involved in adrenal hormone metabolism, ensuring that hormones are metabolized and removed from the body in a timely and efficient manner.
  • Having adequate magnesium levels can help to support adrenal health and function, reducing the risk of adrenal-related health problems, such as chronic stress and fatigue, hormonal imbalances, and adrenal exhaustion.

Magnesium and Mental Health

Magnesium plays a role in the regulation of mental health and wellness. Magnesium helps to support mental health in several ways, including:

  • Mood regulation: Magnesium helps to regulate mood, reducing symptoms of anxiety, depression, and irritability and improving overall well-being.
  • Neurotransmitter activity: Magnesium is involved in the activity of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals involved in the regulation of mood, sleep, and cognitive function.
  • Stress response: Magnesium helps regulate the body’s stress response, reducing stress and anxiety symptoms and improving overall mental health and wellness.
  • Sleep regulation: Magnesium helps to regulate sleep, improving sleep quality and reducing symptoms of insomnia and restless sleep.
  • Having adequate magnesium levels can help to support mental health and wellness, reducing the risk of mental health problems, such as anxiety, depression, and insomnia.

Magnesium and Sleep

Magnesium plays a role in the regulation of sleep. Magnesium helps to promote sleep in several ways, including:

 

  • Neurotransmitter activity: Magnesium is involved in the activity of neurotransmitters, which are chemicals involved in the regulation of mood, sleep, and cognitive function.
  • Relaxation: Magnesium helps promote relaxation and reduce anxiety symptoms, which can improve sleep quality and duration.
  • Hormone regulation: Magnesium helps to regulate hormones involved in sleep, including melatonin, a hormone that regulates sleep-wake cycles.
  • Muscle relaxation: Magnesium helps to relax muscles, reducing muscle tension and cramping symptoms, which can interfere with sleep.

Magnesium and Heart Health

Magnesium plays an important role in maintaining heart health. Some ways magnesium can positively impact heart health include:

  • Regulating blood pressure: Magnesium helps regulate blood pressure and has been shown to lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
  • Reducing the risk of heart disease: Low magnesium levels have been linked to an increased risk of heart disease. Increasing magnesium intake through diet and supplements may help reduce this risk.
  • Improving heart function: Magnesium regulates heart muscle contractions and can help improve heart function.
  • Preventing arrhythmias: Magnesium helps regulate the heart’s electrical activity and can prevent irregular heartbeats (arrhythmias).

Magnesium and Migraines

Magnesium and migraines have a complex relationship, with some research suggesting that magnesium may play a role in reducing the frequency and severity of migraines.

Magnesium is involved in many processes in the body, including nerve function and regulation of neurotransmitters, and low magnesium levels have been linked to increased susceptibility to migraines. Several studies have found that magnesium supplementation can reduce the frequency and severity of migraines, although more research is needed to understand the relationship between magnesium and migraines fully.

Magnesium is thought to help migraines by several mechanisms, including:

  • Regulating neurotransmitters: Magnesium regulates neurotransmitters, including glutamate and serotonin, which have been linked to migraines. By regulating neurotransmitter levels, magnesium may help reduce the frequency and severity of migraines.
  • Relaxing blood vessels: Magnesium has been shown to help relax blood vessels and reduce the constriction of blood vessels, which can trigger migraines.
  • Preventing neuronal excitation: Magnesium acts as a natural calcium channel blocker, which helps prevent overstimulation of the brain and reduces the risk of migraines.
  • Reducing inflammation: Magnesium has anti-inflammatory effects and has been shown to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can be involved in developing migraines.

How Does Magnesium Help Anxiety?

Magnesium may help with anxiety through several mechanisms, including:

  • Regulating neurotransmitters: Magnesium regulates neurotransmitters, including glutamate and GABA, which play a role in anxiety. By regulating neurotransmitter levels, magnesium may help reduce anxiety symptoms.
  • Reducing inflammation: Magnesium has anti-inflammatory effects and has been shown to reduce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can contribute to anxiety and other mood disorders.
  • Relieving muscle tension: Magnesium is involved in muscle function and can help relieve muscle tension, a common physical manifestation of anxiety.
  • Improving sleep quality: Magnesium has a calming effect on the nervous system and can improve sleep quality, which can help reduce anxiety symptoms.

How Magnesium Can Help PMS and PMDD

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a collection of physical and emotional symptoms that many women experience in the days leading up to their menstrual period. Some research suggests that magnesium supplementation may be beneficial for managing specific PMS symptoms, including:

  • Cramps: Magnesium has been shown to help relieve menstrual cramps by relaxing the smooth muscle and reducing muscle spasms.
  • Mood changes: Magnesium has a calming effect on the nervous system and may help reduce anxiety, irritability, and mood swings associated with PMS.
  • Headaches: Magnesium has been shown to help relieve headaches and migraines, which are common symptoms during PMS.
  • Water retention: Magnesium can help regulate fluid balance and reduce water retention, which can contribute to bloating and weight gain during PMS.

Types of Magnesium Supplements

Magnesium supplements come in different forms, each with its benefits and drawbacks. The most common forms are:

  • Magnesium Citrate – easily absorbed, good for constipation relief
  • Magnesium Oxide – is inexpensive but has low absorption
  • Magnesium Glycinate – well absorbed, helps with muscle and nerve function
  • Magnesium L-Threonate – improves brain function and memory
  • Magnesium Chloride – absorbed well, good for skin health
  • Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom salt) – can be used for baths to help with sore muscles and stress relief

All forms of magnesium offer health benefits, including reducing symptoms of depression, regulating heart rate and blood pressure, maintaining healthy bones, and supporting the immune system.

What Are the Benefits of Magnesium Glycinate?

Magnesium glycinate is a form of magnesium supplement that is well absorbed by the body and less likely to cause gastrointestinal side effects than other forms of magnesium. Some benefits of magnesium glycinate include:

  • Improved sleep: Magnesium glycinate can help improve sleep quality and reduce insomnia symptoms.
  • Reduced muscle pain and cramping: Magnesium plays a role in muscle function and can help relieve muscle pain and cramping.
  • Better mood: Magnesium regulates neurotransmitters, which can affect mood and mental well-being.
  • Reduced symptoms of PMS: Magnesium glycinate may help reduce symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS), such as cramps, bloating, and mood swings.
  • Improved cardiovascular health: Magnesium regulates blood pressure and heart function and may help improve cardiovascular health.

The Benefits of Magnesium L-Threonate

Magnesium L-threonate is a magnesium supplement specifically designed to cross the blood-brain barrier and improve brain magnesium levels. Some benefits of magnesium L-threonate include:

  • Improved cognitive function: Magnesium L-threonate has been shown to improve cognitive function, including memory and learning.
  • Reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety: Magnesium regulates neurotransmitters and may help reduce symptoms of depression and anxiety.
  • Improved sleep quality: Magnesium L-threonate may help improve sleep quality and reduce insomnia symptoms.
  • Reduced age-related cognitive decline: Magnesium L-threonate may help reduce age-related cognitive decline and improve brain health.
  • Improved neuropathic pain symptoms: Magnesium L-threonate has been shown to improve neuropathic pain symptoms.

Magnesium Deficiency

Magnesium deficiency, also known as hypomagnesemia, is a condition where the body lacks adequate magnesium levels. It is estimated that around half of the world’s population is deficient in magnesium. Some common causes of magnesium deficiency include:

  • Poor diet – low intake of magnesium-rich foods such as nuts, legumes, and green leafy vegetables
  • Chronic conditions – such as kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, and gastrointestinal disorders
  • Certain medications – including proton pump inhibitors, diuretics, and antibiotics
  • Alcoholism – excessive alcohol consumption can lead to magnesium loss
  • Aging – as people age, they may absorb less magnesium

Symptoms of magnesium deficiency can include:

  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Muscle cramps and spasms
  • Numbness and tingling
  • Anxiety and depression
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Osteoporosis

The normal range for serum magnesium levels is typically 1.7 to 2.2 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL). A level below 1.7 mg/dL is considered low.

However, it’s important to note that the definition of low magnesium levels can vary depending on the laboratory and the reference range used. Therefore, it’s essential to talk to a healthcare provider for an accurate interpretation of your specific test results.

If left untreated, magnesium deficiency can lead to serious health problems. Maintaining adequate magnesium levels through diet and supplementation is important, as directed by a healthcare provider.

Several factors in the modern world contribute to an increased prevalence of magnesium deficiency, including:

  • Diet: The modern diet often lacks sufficient magnesium, as people consume processed and refined foods with lower levels of this mineral. Additionally, changes in agricultural practices have led to soil depletion and decreased levels of magnesium in crops.
  • Stress: Chronic stress can lead to increased magnesium loss and decreased absorption of this mineral, exacerbating magnesium deficiency.
  • Medications: Certain medications, such as proton pump inhibitors and diuretics, can interfere with magnesium absorption and increase magnesium loss.
  • Alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to decreased magnesium levels and an increased risk of magnesium deficiency.
  • Poor gut health: Gastrointestinal disorders and other factors that affect gut health can lead to decreased magnesium absorption and increased magnesium loss, increasing the risk of magnesium deficiency.

Who Would Benefit From a Magnesium Vitamin?

A magnesium supplement can benefit individuals who are deficient in magnesium or have an increased need for it. Some groups who may benefit from a magnesium supplement include:

  • Athletes and physically active people – magnesium plays a role in muscle and nerve function, making it essential for athletes and those who exercise regularly.
  • Individuals with chronic conditions – certain health conditions, such as diabetes and kidney disease, can increase the risk of magnesium deficiency.
  • People with digestive issues – some gastrointestinal disorders, such as Crohn’s disease and celiac disease, can prevent the body from absorbing enough magnesium from food.
  • Pregnant women or breastfeeding – increased magnesium needs during pregnancy and lactation can be challenging to meet through diet alone.
  • Older adults – as people age, they may absorb less magnesium and may benefit from a supplement.
  • Individuals with a family history of magnesium deficiency – a genetic predisposition to magnesium deficiency may increase the risk of deficiency in some people.

Are Magnesium Supplements Safe?

While magnesium supplements can benefit some individuals, there are also some potential risks. Some of the risks associated with magnesium supplements include the following:

  • Interactions with medications – magnesium supplements can interact with certain medications, including blood pressure medications, heart medications, and antibiotics.
  • Overdose – taking too much magnesium can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal cramping. High magnesium levels can be toxic in severe cases and lead to muscle weakness, confusion, and irregular heartbeat.
  • Unregulated quality – dietary supplements are not regulated by the FDA, so the quality and purity of magnesium supplements may vary.
  • Undiagnosed health conditions – taking magnesium supplements can mask symptoms of undiagnosed health conditions, so it’s important to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen

How Much Magnesium Should I Take?

The amount of magnesium a person needs varies based on factors such as age, gender, and health status. The recommended daily allowances (RDAs) for magnesium are as follows:

  • Men 19-30 years old: 400-420 mg/day
  • Women 19-30 years old: 310-320 mg/day
  • Men and women over 30: 420-430 mg/day
  • Pregnant women: 350-400 mg/day
  • Breastfeeding women: 310-360 mg/day

It’s important to note that these are average recommendations, and actual magnesium needs can vary. It’s best to consult a healthcare provider to determine the appropriate amount of magnesium for an individual’s needs. Also, it’s important to obtain most of the daily magnesium requirement from food sources such as nuts, legumes, leafy green vegetables, whole grains, and dairy products and to use supplements only under a healthcare provider’s supervision.

Older adults may be at a higher risk for magnesium deficiency for several reasons, including decreased magnesium absorption, changes in diet, and the use of certain medications. As a result, some older adults may benefit from magnesium supplementation.

However, the optimal magnesium intake for older adults varies depending on age, sex, and overall health status. The recommended daily magnesium intake for adults is around 400-420 mg per day for men and 310-320 mg per day for women.

The upper limit for magnesium intake is 450-500 mg daily for adults. Consuming higher amounts of magnesium than this can lead to adverse effects such as diarrhea, nausea, and abdominal cramping. It’s also important to note that taking high doses of magnesium supplements can interfere with the absorption of other minerals and cause an imbalance in the body. In severe cases, magnesium toxicity can lead to life-threatening conditions such as heart and respiratory failure. It’s best to consult a healthcare professional before taking high magnesium supplements.

Magnesium Dose for Mental Health

The appropriate dose of magnesium for improving mental health varies based on individual needs and should be determined under the supervision of a healthcare provider. Factors that can impact the appropriate dose include age, sex, health status, and dietary intake of magnesium.

Some studies have used doses of magnesium in the range of 200-600 mg/day to improve symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, it’s important to note that these are just examples, and the appropriate dose for you may differ.

Magnesium Dose for Sleep

Some studies have used doses of magnesium in the range of 200-500 mg/day to improve insomnia symptoms. However, it’s important to note that these are just examples, and the appropriate dose for you may differ.

Magnesium Dosage for Heart Health

Some studies have used doses of magnesium in the range of 300-450 mg/day to improve heart health outcomes. However, it’s important to note that these are just examples, and the appropriate dose for you may differ.

How Much Magnesium Supplement Should I Take for Adrenal Health?

Some studies have used doses of magnesium in the range of 200-500 mg/day to improve adrenal health.

How Much Magnesium Should I take for Leg Cramps?

Some studies have used doses of magnesium in the range of 200-600 mg/day to relieve leg cramps.

How to Choose Magnesium Supplements

When choosing a magnesium supplement, consider the following factors:

  • Form: Magnesium supplements are available in various forms, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium glycinate, and magnesium l-threonate. Each form has different properties and bioavailability, so choosing the form best suits your needs and health status is essential.
  • Dose: Consider the amount of elemental magnesium (the active ingredient) in the supplement rather than the weight of the entire product. Different forms of magnesium have different bioavailability, so choosing a supplement that provides the appropriate amount of elemental magnesium for your needs is important.
  • Quality: Look for a magnesium supplement manufactured by a reputable company and tested for purity and potency. Choose a product certified by a third-party organization, such as USP or NSF International.
  • Price: Consider the cost per dose of elemental magnesium rather than the cost of the entire product. Choose a product that provides good value for the cost.
  • When comparing magnesium supplements, look for products that meet your specific needs, have a good reputation, and have been tested for quality. Read the label carefully and compare the dose, form, and cost of different products before deciding.

The most bioavailable form of magnesium varies based on individual needs and factors such as digestive health and medical conditions. The following forms of magnesium are considered to have good bioavailability:

  • Magnesium citrate: Easily absorbed and well-tolerated by many people, magnesium citrate can be a good choice for people with digestive issues.
  • Magnesium glycinate: A well-absorbed form of magnesium that is gentle on the digestive system, magnesium glycinate is often used to improve sleep and reduce stress.
  • Magnesium l-threonate: A magnesium that can cross the blood-brain barrier, magnesium l-threonate is often used to improve cognitive function and reduce stress.
  • Magnesium chloride: A well-absorbed form of magnesium often used for skin and athletic applications.

Magnesium 500 mg Benefits

A 500 mg magnesium supplement can offer various health benefits, depending on the form and individual needs, including:

  • Improved sleep: Magnesium has a calming effect on the body and can help improve sleep quality.
  • Reduced muscle cramps and spasms: Magnesium is essential for muscle function, and a supplement can help reduce muscle cramps and spasms.
  • Improved heart health: Magnesium is involved in many processes that support heart health, including blood pressure regulation, blood sugar control, and cholesterol metabolism.
  • Improved mood and cognitive function: Magnesium plays a role in neurotransmitter function and can help support mood and cognitive function.
  • Reduced stress and anxiety: Magnesium has a calming effect on the body and can help reduce stress and anxiety.

Magnesium Supplements FAQs

The following answers to some of the most common questions about magnesium supplements and minerals.

What is magnesium?

Magnesium is a mineral that is essential for many processes in the body, including muscle and nerve function, energy production, and heart health.

Why do people need magnesium?

Magnesium is necessary for many essential bodily functions, including muscle and nerve function, energy production, and heart health. Magnesium also plays a role in bone health and helps regulate blood sugar levels and blood pressure.

What are the symptoms of magnesium deficiency?

Common symptoms of magnesium deficiency include muscle cramps and spasms, fatigue, irritability, and sleep disturbances. More severe deficiencies can lead to heart rhythm disturbances, muscle weakness, and seizures.

Who is at risk of magnesium deficiency?

Individuals at a higher risk of magnesium deficiency include those with gastrointestinal disorders, older adults, people with type 2 diabetes, and those who consume excessive amounts of alcohol.

How much magnesium do people need?

The recommended daily magnesium intake varies based on age and gender, but the average recommended daily intake for adults is about 400-420 mg for men and 310-320 mg for women.

What are the best sources of magnesium?

Good dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts and seeds, whole grains, and legumes.

What are magnesium supplements, and what forms are available?

Magnesium supplements are dietary supplements that provide additional magnesium to the body. Available forms include magnesium oxide, citrate, glycinate, and l-threonate.

Is it safe to take magnesium supplements?

Magnesium supplements are generally safe when taken as directed. Still, it’s important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting a supplement to determine the appropriate form and dose for your needs. Taking too much magnesium can cause adverse effects, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramping, and low blood pressure.

How do I choose a magnesium supplement?

When choosing a magnesium supplement, it’s important to consider the form of magnesium, the dose, and the bioavailability of the supplement. Talking to a healthcare provider before starting a supplement is important to determine the appropriate form and dose for your needs.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many aspects of health, including heart health, bone health, energy metabolism, and brain function. While magnesium is found in various foods, many individuals may not get enough from their diets and may benefit from magnesium supplementation.

However, it’s important to talk to a healthcare provider before starting a magnesium supplement to determine if it is appropriate and to determine the appropriate form and dose for your needs. Different forms of magnesium have different bioavailability and may have different effects on the body, so it’s important to choose the correct form for your needs.

Magnesium is a safe and effective supplement that can provide numerous benefits for overall health and well-being. Individuals can support their health and improve their quality of life by ensuring adequate magnesium intake.

 

Sources

NIH National Institutes of Health. “Magnesium.” June 2, 2022. Accessed January 30, 2022.

Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. “Magnesium.” Accessed January 30, 2022.

NIH National Library of Medicine. “Magnesium in Diet.” March 11, 2921. Accessed January 30, 2022.

University Hospitals. “The Surprising Health Benefits of Magnesium.” September 6, 2022. Accessed January 30, 2022.

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